Do you think that we should first correct faculty problems to have talented engineers coming from our colleges?

Monday, November 18, 2013

Engineering Etu Potundi

I am delighted to see the opinions about Engineering Education in AP by three eminent people and vice chancellors of three JNTU’s. Certainly they have raised important points which are some of  the possible reasons for this worst state of Engineering Education in AP. Of course, I don’t feel it is anyway different in any part of India. However, I would like to bring some points which vice-chancellors can observe and correct the situation at their level. Why to throw blame on others. As an authority of an University, you can start correcting the system at your level. I would like to bring some of my observations and remedies that can be done at University level.
1.       First and foremost problem which I have observed and which is accumulated from last 20 years is, unskilled, un-qualified, un-ethical, non-motivated faculty members. I strongly believe university people really can do many things in correction direction which they are not cared to do. The following are some of my observations and possible corrections measures to be taken.
a.       Today, majority of  B.Tech qualified students joining in M.Tech in colleges where classes are not held. Moreover, they work as faculty in nearby colleges. They want degree, fee re-imbursement, salary as a faculty, till they get job in industry.  You see how immoral they are.  After M.Tech also, if they don’t get industry job then they are opting teaching as a stop-gap. Finally, after they try for  2 to 3 years for industry job, they conclude teaching is their profession and continue as a faculty.  How an university can control this situation?. They can easily cross check M.Tech admission lists (of all Universities in AP) and  college faculty lists and stop this practice. This will save fee re-imbursement expenses to Govt to some extent. 

Another ugliest thing which universities are not giving importance at all is “M.Tech thesis”. It will not be a joke if I say not even 1% of the M.Tech theses are the actual work done by the candidates. They are all purchased from outsiders. I understand that last year annual turnover of those companies who supplies ready my theses is more than 100 crores. They dare to send list of projects, bulk offers to academia including Vice chancellors, Deans, Principals. For my surprise,  some of the VC’s inaugurated such a type of business. I have sent email campaigning material to vice chancellors, chancellor and demanded to stop this unethical practice. No action is taken till now. Instead, they have made every M.Tech student to implement an IEEE paper or publish an IEEE paper. Things became too worse. Now, those companies are supplying IEEE papers implementations as theses.  Universities should take this thing seriously. This type of M.Tech faculty, what they can teach to students of B.Tech?. About a decade back, Univ people first used to ask experts whether they will in a position to review an M.Tech thesis or not by sending abstract/synopsis. Once experts says yes, they will be sending M.Tech thesis report only after that they will be arranging M.Tech defence along with viva-voce. Now, university people damaged all this good system. They are calling experts on one day, theses reports of three students will be given just before the students seminar. Why universities have to kill the established good systems and spoil the education system. They can very well correct this if they really want.

Is it not possible to see Universities that M.Tech classes to be held regularly in their campuses and also in affiliated colleges?. It is very well possible to be implemented. But they don’t do it. If this is taken care, at least next generation engineering graduates gets benefitted.

Another catastrophic thing that is happening in current JNTU system is that these un-oriented M.Tech studying faculty members are becoming examiners for B.Tech exams. Now, you can imagine how much damage is taking place to the system. Majority of the B.Tech students are of the opinion is that what marks they get and what they expect are never matching. Every student feels this. Why? These un-qualified M.Tech faculty are one reason.  All these things can be easily controlled by university authorities. But, they are not serious about it.

Majority of M.Tech pursuing and completed faculty members (since last 10-15 years) are fond of All-in-ones or guides. When they become examiners they are giving marks if they found the answer is from All-in-one which they have studied. They are taking it granted whatever trash is there in those all-in-ones. The generations are effecting because of this. Isn’t not possible for a Vice chancellor to see that all-in-ones to be banned. I still remember about cine actor Mahesh babu and his fans ransacking privacy CD company in Warangal. Is it not possible for a VC to stop this. They don’t do it as they get their percentage from publishers, Board of studies Chariman’s don’t talk as they also get some or other percentage from all-in-one publishers. College managements are not serious as they are getting good pass percentages which helps them in next year admissions. Parents are happy with what marks their lad god. This is the vicious circle that is running in engineering education. Every stake holder (parents, university authorities, faculty, managements, government), especially Universities have to take serious action to stop this worst practice. Is it not possible for Universities to identify faculty members who are contributing to all-in-ones and take actions on them?. May be, chief examiners should be warned to see that the examiners are not giving marks only for those answers which are from all-in-ones. University can ban those examiners for few years and encourage those chief-examiners. Different universities are having different approaches regarding scheme of evaluation. At this junction, if one is serious,  one can control the effect of all-in-one.

In Andhra, few years back in order to fill seats in post graduation they have started PGECET  as majority of B.Tech passed students from AP colleges are not qualifying GATE. To that extent it is OK. Why universities don’t aim to improve the quality at least after joining the M.Tech.  Why they will not ask M.Tech students to pass GATE before they appear M.Tech theses defense or before they start their theses work. Why they cannot ask M.Tech pursuing students who joined under PGECET to appear UGC-NET and clear the same before they start their theses work. Why they cannot arrange GATE orientation lectures in University campuses and help the M.Tech students who joined under PGECET to clear GATE/UGC-NET? This way we can improve the quality of postgraduate student and in turn improving the faculty. They can even ask managements to arrange GATE/UGC-NET orientation lectures to clear them by their post graduate students. However, it is better Universities to organize these orientation lectures in their campuses. This is very well in the hands of University. Why to blame AICTE or Government, they can implement very well easily.

Usually in our hierarchy, an ITI qualified fellow is called as skilled labor. A polytechnic or diploma person is referred as supervisor who sees the work done according to engineering specification prescribed by an engineer. An engineer designs according to some principles. Rather, our engineering curriculum orients him like that and it is the objective of B.Tech or B.E or graduation. Only during the post graduation, the candidate is expected to expose to dogma of research. Thus, a B.Tech thesis is called as project. Whereas M.Tech thesis is called as thesis and is partial fulfillment for the award of the degree. While Ph.D thesis is full fulfillment for the award of the degree. During the masters, candidates are supposed to expose to how research can carried out. They are often asked to re-invent and existing system, change and observe an existing system. Unfortunately, this is not taking place in reality. I dare to challenge the University authorities to prove that at least 1% of M.Tech theses submitted to them are genuine (not purchased) and are carried out in house in a college or university and under the guidance of a faculty member.  It is certainly in the hands of the University itself. Why to blame AICTE or someone else.

Universities have to see that classes for M.Tech courses to be conducted on regular intervals and faculty members who takes M.Tech classes should be Ph.D with at least 5 years teaching experience. It is naked fact that hardly few institutions which can be counted on fingers  are having Ph.D qualified faculty members. These colleges send the Ph.D faculty to B.Tech classes, not for post graduation. There are many equations involved for doing this. However, total result is the M.Tech classes are not conducted. May be university can identify expert faculty either from their campus or affiliated colleges and entrust them to take M.Tech classes in nodal (or some other identified) college which have to be attended by post graduate students of nearby colleges. This type of action, a University can be implemented easily. May be University can pay the honorarium for faculty. Similar steps to be taken to orient post graduate students towards research methodology  course before they start their M.Tech thesis.

DAAD(Germany) etc type organizations welcomes group visits to their Universities. Both under-graduate(B.Tech), graduate (M.Tech) students can apply for this as a group along with a faculty member of their college. For my surprise, not all universities in A.P are not registered with DAAD to extend this facility to students of our AP. For sensible University authorities, taking this as an important thing and arranging student visits and student exchange programs is not at all difficult. But, they are not doing this. That is how our students are lagging global awareness though they are getting degrees.

Also, post-graduate students have to made aware of many fellowship programs such as Common wealth, Erasmus Mundus, Curie, Manmohan-obama, etc., such that they will be serious while doing their Masters thesis. Who has to take this oath of educating M.Tech students about all the above fellowships? Is it not the University or faculty members? What difficulty university will be having to share this with their post-graduate students?. In fact, British Council, DAAD are always at forefront in organizing awareness programs with their expenses. Why universities do not utilize this facility?

These M.Tech students should be made embrace the technological developments such as e-learning, etc., during their study itself such that when they become faculty members they can do better justice to B.Tech students. Universities should see that they will register on-line courses offered by prestigious universities such as Stanford, MIT, UN University. If  possible, they can see that they will be visible in their transcripts (marks lists). If needed, they can conduct final examination and give academic credits to the course.

b.      Another pathetic thing that  is spoiling engineering education is Ph.D degrees. AICTE, Universities, and many other organizations are insisting doctorate faculty members in the colleges? How come suddenly Ph.D qualified people will be available for teaching? This has raised curtain for issuing dubious Ph.D degrees. Since last 10-15 years this is getting aggravated in A.P and also in India. Every university authority who has right to speak, do not open their mouth, rather they are sharing their contribution to further aggravate the situation.

Only recently, UGC made a list of banned universities in their web site. However, by that time many colleges are flooded  with Ph.d’s from these universities such as Magadha University as their faculty.  In order to satisfy AICTE requirements, colleges are using “cat on a wall” policy. They are under the opinion that let AICTE/University inspection people to point about their Ph.D faculty then will look into this. Of course, they don’t hesitate to supply purses to inspection members for not commenting or pointing about this in their reports. Worst thing is that some  faculty  members are having on-line Ph.Ds. I strongly feel it is high time correct at this point  by Universities. I don’t see what problems they have in implementing this. Why to blame AICTE/UGC or some else. A University can easily implement this on its own.  They can demand their affiliated colleges to register their faculty members at the university. University can issue a code or number also to the faculty after verifying his credentials. This will stop employing dubious Ph.d faculty in the colleges and quality of teaching and students increases.

Some of the Universities in AP such as Rayalaseema, Krishna, Acharya Nagarjuna, etc., are offering Ph.d degrees though they don’t have concern departments in their respective Universities. If they don’t have respective departments means they don’t have academic strength or Excellency in those areas?. How they can offer Ph.D degrees in those subjects. Why Vice chancellors of other Universities are keeping quite? Don’t you open your mouth and start raising the issues with concerned authorities. Instead, you are accepting the Ph.D holders from these Universities and giving promotions though through normal promotions. Being an authority who is supposed to maintain the standards of University, if you cannot control these things, how can you build standards in education under your university?

Prestigious institutes like IIT’s are having limits on number of Ph.d students attached to a faculty member. Typically it is 2 to 3. How come these state university faculty are allowed to accept few tens to hundreds of Ph.d students?. University authorities are encouraging this as they are seing Ph.D also another source of  income. Ten years back, Ph.D students used to pay few hundred as their annual fee. Now, universities are charging 25000 to 30000/-. In return, what are you providing? Are you holding any classes to them? No. Are you providing any library, other instrument facilities to them?. No.  If so,  why are you charging so much money?. What is the scientific basis for you for raising the fee?. Some of the university authorities says, deemed universities are charging even one lakh also  for Ph.D, why don’t we  also charge  more?.  Of course, I don’t want to talk about Ph.d’s from deemed universities.  That is going to be another dimension which is out of the scope of this discussion.  What is the quality of your Ph.D’s?. Did you make a committee that evaluates standards of your Ph.d’s for every 5 years?. Is it not possible to take steps to maintain the standards of your Ph.d degrees?. How AICTE  can stop you   if you plan to correct your Ph.d standards.

Majority of the Universities in AP are admitting their Ph.D students through their own entrance examination. In order to build up the quality among the faculty, why they will not ask their Ph.D students to pass GATE or  UGC-NET before  they appear for pre-phd examination or before they submit their Ph.d thesis?. If they insist then the quality of faculty improves.  After all, if they don’t qualify them how come they make their B.Tech or M.Tech students to clear these examinations?

Few years back, there was no restriction for submitting Ph.D thesis. Recently, some of the universities made a rule such that a candidate has to have one paper published in a Journal before submission of their Ph.d thesis. Because of this many new journals have come up in the recent past which published papers without proper reviewing. World popular organization, IEEE has banned some of the professors publishing their work in IEEE journals for next 5 years. Highest authorities of universities are also in the list. What really happened?. So called Ph.D scholars our AP universities  published some of the articles  of IEEE as it is in these new journals by making their names and their Ph.d supervisors names as authors?. The fact is that, their Ph.D supervisors do not know this and they have taken aback after seeing emails from IEEE banning their names. This is the ethical strength of Ph.D students in our universities. Is it not possible to stop this?. Why it happened? There can be many reasons, but one of it is: Tens and hundreds of Ph.d students attached to a guide? How come a guide can really guide tens of students at a time. If university limits this number then they have time to take care of their Ph.D students. Otherwise, this type of things are going to continue.
c.       Certainly universities are required to revamp their curriculum to make their students preferable to industry. Some Universities such as JNTU’s are doing this to some extent unlike conventional universities. However, they are not concentrating the enforcing the faculty first before introducing new courses.  First, they have to organize the new course at their university campus and let private college faculty to attend the course and pass the examination. If possible, the same course can be offered to the students of their autonomous colleges and share those experiences with these faculty. Only if expert committee feels that a faculty can do justice to the proposed course, he will be asked to handle the course in his college. Is it so difficult for an university to implement? If not, what for Board of Studies, what for academic sections?.  How AICTE comes into picture to stop your activities in this direction?.
d.       It is not a joke if I say that more than 60% of the faculty in professional colleges are not having a service of more than 6 months. They have to be equipped to face a class of strength seventy!. It is very essential to organize few days of induction course to teach fundamentals of teaching. In this connection, I would like to remember Intensive Teaching Workshop (ITW) which is organized at BITS, Pilani for a new faculty members. Such exercises are carried out by me along with some senior faculty in former Institution and observed to be giving better results. This can be practiced by the colleges to improve the faculty teaching skills.  May be only after successful completion of ITW, on-line subject tests, one or two subject workshops, technical industrial visits, ethics course, etc.,  young faculty have to be asked to teach the course. This can be easily enforced by universities to get good quality education.
The above are some of the points out of  many ideas which I have regarding how a university  can strengthen the engineering system without blaming AICTE.

I  shall share my views on the following items in due course.
2.        parents and their mindsets.
3.       College Managements
4.       Industry
5.       Students and their mindsets

6.       Intermediate education and corporate culture

Monday, October 17, 2011

My Agony on Standards of Engg PhDs

Hello All, Let me again share my agony on the standards of the Engg Education in India. As of now B.Tech, M.Tech projects became big joke now a days. I understand there are many companies surviving on supplying projects. Now, Ph.Ds are also considered as projects, not theses!!!!. Many companies have started giving adds in many means about their Ph.D project support. See the following forwarded email. Of course, there are many online Ph.D's, There are many Magadha Ph.D holders. Many Rayalaseema Univ, Kuppam Univ Ph.Ds etc... Who has to take responsibility for such a pathetic situation in India. Why they dont act timely? Dear Sir, Please go through the mail. Regards, Murali Krishna ---------- Forwarded message ---------- From: Nano Softwares Date: Sat, Oct 15, 2011 at 11:56 AM Subject: Guidance/Assistance for PhD Projects To: Hi Sir/Madam, Greetings from NANO softwares!!! NANO SOFTWARES, We are a leading organization engaged in Research and Development projects. We are providing guidance and assistance services for PhD scholars. Our services include the following: § Problem Identification § Devising Solutions § Literature Survey § Implementation in R&D Tools and Programming Languages § Experimental Results and Analysis § Paper Preparation § International Journal/Conference Publication § National Journal/Conference publication We are providing services in the following domain and more... § Image Processing § Biometrics § Bioinformatics § Data Mining § Data Warehousing § Medical Image Processing § Software Engineering § Grid Computing § Cluster Computing § Soft Computing § Web Mining § Signal Processing § Pattern Recognition Thanks and Regards, Research and Development Team, NANO SOFTWARES, Part II, 3rd Floor Kalluveetil Teenu Centre, Court Road, Nagercoil-1. Ph: 8428636190, 8825722133, 04652 - 425167, e-mail: -- Thanks and Regards, BVG Murali Krishna, B.Tech.,MBA., Training and Placement Officer, Aditya Institute of Technology and Management(AITAM), TEKKALI, Srikakulam Dist.-532 201, A.P., Ph.:08945 244736, Mobile Ph.:0 94401 68467,, NBA/NAAC Accredited,TEQIP Institute/10 Glories Years Permanently affiliated to JNTUK.

Monday, January 10, 2011

Do We Need A National Level Test To Expedite Skills of Current Young Engineering Faculty?

Recent Statement of Mr. Kapil Sibal, Hon'ble Minister For Education, indicating that nation still needs 1000 more Universities and many more technical and higher education institutions made me baffled throughly. Yashpal committee report on renovation and rejuvenation of higher education (June, 2009) stated that “There is a serious threat to the very idea of the university and its values of knowledge generation in our society today”. Undoubtedly nation has to increase literacy; it does not mean that we produce un-skilled graduate engineers in millions after millions. Recent NASSCOM studies indicated that not even 18% of the recruited fresh candidates are at expected level. Some other studies quotes this number as 30% and others as 8%. What ever may be the statistics of different studies, all of us have to accept the fact that the people who are graduating from our colleges are not up to the expectations of the industry. Of course, some times we do require to find fault with the attitude of industry, especially IT industry. It is sending wrong signals to the young student community. My observations during the last 10-12 years indicate that they are recruiting students with good analytical abilities, soft skills and HR abilities. Their selection is independent of their engineering stream!. It sent wrong signals to the student community that their technical skills are not important to get IT job. Statistics in the recent past indicated that all the good students have joined in IT industry, independent of their engineering stream. No doubt this may create a skill/expertise vacuum in respective engineering streams which may be visible only at a later stage. To support my argument, I wanted to share some of my practical experiences with the students. I used to take Elective courses during late 90's and when IT boom took place. I stopped taking elective courses, as students are not serious as they have appointments in their hands!. Of course, those who got appointments are not serious and they used to disturb/demoralize the other guys also. After the boom, there is a little slump, again I enjoyed taking electives and students are serious now!. Same behavioral patterns are observed during the recent slump also.

In a nutshell, who are currently working as faculty are the ones who did not get their dream industry jobs even after repeated attempts. Is it possible to relinquish them and have new bread?. It is highly difficult and most of them are in responsible positions as HOD's, Deans, etc.,. Thus, we need to have ways of tuning them to become good engineering faculty who can meet the expectations of generations.

One can attribute many reasons for this worst situation. Out of all reasons, most important reason is the number of staff and their skill/knowledge. I still remember my days of Engineering at a state University during early 1980s. Our college Total student strength including masters student is about 655 while faculty used to be around 125. Most important thing is that out of 125 faculty, almost 80 are doctorates. What is the situation today?. It is really appalling. In one department itself there will be about 600 students and staff will not be crossing 30. After all, so called AICTE rule 1:15 is maintained at very difficulty in most of the colleges. I happened to see class strengths in US, UK, German universities to be around 20 from second year of under-graduate onwards. At least, I am glad as a former faculty member of BITS, Pilani that it is maintaining a section strength of 30 from second year onwards. It is really impossible to give individual attention if the class strength is 70 ( without considering re-joined and directly admitted students to second year after their diploma). This enormous number of class strength is making faculty member to evade many teaching practices showing it as an excuse. Thus, it is very high time to recommend a class strength of 15-20. Of course, I don't want to discuss about financial aspects involved from the managements end. Also, I feel it is high time to recall recent youth statistics. According to that India is the one which is going to have majority of youth of the world. Do we want properly trained youth or un-skilled, un-motivated youth. Certainly, we want good. Thus, I feel it is our policy makers responsibility first to correct the faculty (trainers) who are supposed to train the generations to come. Let me comeback to the faculty skill set and how to improve them first to produce skilled or technically strong engineering students.

I guess I have seen some thread about having an exam to practice as a lawyer.
Also, I remember in some country Medical Practitioners are required to take an exam, probably on a regular basis. Why not our young faculty can also be asked to do so.

1.It is not a joke if I say that more than 60% of the faculty in professional colleges are having a service of at most 6 months. No doubt, they are joining teaching as they did not get job in industry. They have to be equipped to face a class of strength seventy!. It is very essential to organize few days of inducting course to teach elements of teaching. In this connection, I would like to remember Intensive Teaching Workshop (ITW) which is organized at BITS, Pilani for a new faculty members. Such exercises are carried out by me along with some senior faculty in former Institution and observed to be giving better results. This can be practiced by the colleges to improve the faculty teaching skills.
2.Let the MHRD/AICTE to organize on-line subject testing portal to test the technical abilities of the young faculty. Every young faculty can be asked to pass this exam in the course which he is planning to take next semester. Probably, MHRD/AICTE can plan to give some incentives for the candidates for their encouragement. This can be continued for a faculty till he successfully passes at least 10 papers in his engineering stream. In order to encourage inter-disciplinary activity, let the faculty to face exams in areas other than his stream and can be given better incentives. Here, I have to re-collect a rule which was enforced by AICTE few years back. According to this rule, a B.Tech/B.E students with first class and GATE qualification is eligible for scale. Now, I guess it has been relaxed. Some how the testing mechanism what I am referring is different from GATE. The GATE exams examines the individuals knowledge over four years. But the exams what I am referring is about subject by subject with the main aim of young faculties deliver-ability of the subject in the class room.
3.Probably MHRD/AICTE has to plan a series of subject workshops to train the young faculty. Rather than the knowledge centers such as IIT's, NIT's are to be asked to conduct some more subject workshops on a regular workshops. We have observed that many college managements are not giving leaves to the faculty. Probably, some incentives to be given to the colleges also in addition to faculty while they are under training.
4.Most of the time, industry people claim that the university syllabus is not up to the expectations of the industry. In a nutshell, the graduates are lagging practical exposure. How to achieve this?. Probably, industrial organizations should be asked to organize technical exhibitions or visits exclusively for faculty purpose. Then knowledge penetrations to generations will start.
5.Another most important thing which we might have to inculcate young faculty for value based education is to expose them ethics both work ethics, social ethics, etc.,. When I hear about some University (such as Anna Univ) introduced a course on Ethics, I feel elated. I strongly feel that the generations are missing values. It is the moral responsibilities of the faculty to talk about this. After all how come it is possible with the young faculty as there are also educated from same prototype education system. Thus, it is high time to preach about ethics in the colleges. Once being a board member of some University, I have raised about the possibility of introducing a course on ethics. The immediate response of a Hon'ble board member is that “Are we having ethics to teach?”. Then I have argued with the board that there is nothing wrong to expect our generation to have ethics even if we don't have. There is no rule that says a thief son has to be thief only!!. After all, it is the process of evolution.
6.I strongly feel that first Innovative Technical Teaching Institutes are necessary much before Innovative Universities at this junction of time. Mr Kapil Sibal and other experts have to identify this first. Young faculty can be made to use ICT enabled education methodologies such that they can improve their image in front of the students. May be the young faculty can be asked to complete on-line course and then face the national level exam to get clearance to teach next semester. Of course, to encourage the faculty , he/she can be offered a certificate or certification of appreciation once he successfully completes the on-line course and which can be considered during his promotions.
7.Every faculty member of IIT's, NIT's, and other reputed institutions are asked to mentor ( not for M.Tech or Ph.d thesis purpose) at least few young faculty to increase their interest in teaching in addition to technology. Probably, to achieve this may be MHRD/AICTE to make it clear to the staff of these reputed institutions that they will not be getting any projects or other funding unless they execute this noble duty to the nation on regular basis. Also, they can be asked to use modern means to communication such as Video Conferencing, etc.,. Bank employees are required to spend some years outside their country during their whole service. In the same fashion, why not we can ask the faculty members of these reputed institutions to spend few years (say 3 to 4) and create academic vibrancy in their respective areas in the engineering colleges.
8.May be only after successful completion of ITW, on-line subject tests, one or two subject workshops, technical industrial visits, ethics course, etc., young faculty can be asked to teach the course.
9.Better control on conductance of Masters programs. This year, AICTE has opened its Pandora box by giving permissions to many post graduate courses without seeing availability of faculty. An excellent conjecture I would like to bring to your notice. Who are joining in the Masters courses?. The ones who are working as a faculty and who did not get placement in Industry. Most pathetic thing is that they are joining in the college where classes are not held. Managements are also happy as they don't incur any expenses. In addition, they may always have scope to make their postgraduate students as future faculty. I wanted to give one more incident which reflects the psychology of a typical management. One day, I was with our college management (I don't want to refer whether it is current or former) along with HOD to finalize time table, they have not asked me whether I am interested to take a post-graduate course or not though I am the only doctorate in the department. They did not ask me as they are afraid about my being taking regular classes which may hamper next years admissions and some students may drop in the current year also after all they are regular faculty in the near by colleges who does not want to loose their salary!!!.
10.Evidently, another amusing thing for me is Ph.D programs. There is not standardized procedures nation wide. Many colleges are flourishing with so called banned Magadha University Ph.D's to satisfy AICTE requirements. Some are having on-line Ph.Ds. Some more doing part-time Ph.Ds. NASSCOM says need for astonishing number of Ph.d by 2020. They did not mention about the quality of Ph.D's. I strongly feel it is high time correct this point also to have properly trained, skilled graduates to satisfy global requirements in addition to national requirements.